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The Shay

Special Exhibits:

The 1906 Shay #4 Steam Locomotive long-term restoration project

The Shay locomotive, serial number 1643, fondly

known as “Ole Four Spot”, is being restored in the

Shay Shed on the Heritage Museum grounds. It is one

of our most prized exhibits. She served as a

workhorse for the Libby Lumber Co and later the J.

Neils Lumber Co. for logging operations in and

around Libby, Montana in the early 1900s. It is

believed to be the last remaining workable locomotive

of its class in Montana.  

This is a powerful standard gauge, Class B 37-2, gear driven Shay locomotive, commonly referred to as a sidewinder or a stem-winder because of the peculiar arrangement of gears and a drive shaft running the full-length of the right side of the locomotive making all wheels drivers. It was manufactured by the Lima Locomotive Works in 1906 at Lima, Ohio as one in a special class of four locomotives (serial numbers 1642, 1643, 1644 and 1645) built for the Thompson Greer Construction Company. All have the same builder date of March 7th, 1906 and all were shipped to Buhl, Minnesota. Locomotive No. 1643 was designated Thompson Greer Engine No. 11. and is the only survivor of their class, all others having been scrapped. It is believed she may have been leased to the Rainy Creek Lumber Company for logging operations near the Minnesota--Canadian border for a time, but it is known that she was delivered to Buhl by common carrier and hauled across a frozen lake on a logging sleigh to the company logging railroad. There she hauled logs from the forest to water until 1909 when purchased by the Libby Lumber Company of Libby, Montana and shipped there by rail. The Libby Lumber Co. designated her Libby Lumber Engine No 4 and she has retained road number 4 through all subsequent ownerships. At Libby, she hauled logs, supplies and logging crews until about 1924 over rough, uneven, steep logging lines east of Libby with an efficient operating range of only about 15 miles due to an operating speed of about 12 miles per hour. Later, rails were laid some 12 miles to the west, over J. Neils’ RR logging bridge across the Kootenai River to access valuable forest reserves owned or operated by the company. The abandoned J. Neils RR logging bridge was destroyed by US Army sappers during WWII as a training exercise. Between 1925 and 1931, she operated on the Great Northern mainline north of Libby along the Kootenai River for a distance of about 12 miles and after 1931 was used primarily to haul logging crews and equipment to logging camps and to perform switching operations in the woods. After 1936, railroad logging gave way to logging by trucks. The "Ole Four Spot" was used primarily for switching cars in the mill yard and to the local Great Northern mainline, a distance of about 1/2 mile. This use continued until about 1944, when she was replaced by a larger locomotive, J. Neils No. 5, brought here from Klickitat, Washington.  However, she continued intermittent switching until retired from operations in about 1946, for an active service life of about 39 years.  Ole Four Spot was then left to molder in the mill bone yard until about 1963 when the new mill owners, The St. Regis Lumber Co., decided to give her a cosmetic face list and put her on permanent display outside their Libby offices. There she remained until acquired by The Heritage Museum. She was moved by truck to the new museum grounds not a half mile from her former place of labor as a switch engine at the end of the line and but a few hundred feet of the site of her days in the bone yard. In the mid 1980’s Ole Four Spot, in need of preservation, received a further cosmetic treatment by museum volunteers to keep her on display a few more years until restoration might return her to glory with the ultimate goal of returning her to active service as Engine No 4 on the recently established J. Neils and Heritage Museum Logging Railway. Shay Locomotives were built from 1878 until 1945 in many sizes configurations and gauges. These steam locomotives were used coast to coast and the world over with 3,354 locomotives manufactured by the company in the Shay pattern. The shay has a very distinct frontal profile. Because of the great weight of the (2 or 3) vertical steam engines on the right side of the locomotive and the geared drive shaft arrangement, the boiler is off set to the opposite side to balance the weight of these two major components. From the front shays appear to have been in an accident that shifted the boiler to one side. Shays were fueled variously by wood, coal, oil and gas with even experimentally configured diesel engine driven shays. Although few of these were actually manufactured by Lima and none are known to survive as originally configured shay designed diesel locomotives, rumors abound of after market conversions. 

Builder Specifications for Locomotive No. 1643

Original empty shipping weight:  64,900 pounds Weight with full load of fuel and water: 42 tons 42" Wagon top boiler Original Working Pressure -180 pounds Three 10" by 12" vertically oriented cylinders on the right side Two trucks of four 29.5 inch wheels under each truck Steam Jam locomotive brakes Westinghouse air brake to control cars making up a train Steam dynamo electrical lighting system Fuel Used by locomotive 1643: Wood in the Minnesota and early Montana operations. Coal in Montana operations until about 1927. Converted to Oil probably in 1927. Speed of a train handled by this locomotive was approximately 12 miles per hour on good track. Operations on spurs in the woods might involve grades from flat to over 11%. On the steep grades of up to 11%, this locomotive was designed to push two empty steel logging cars uphill at a speed of about 6 miles per hour.  Coal consumption for an average day's work was approximately 2 tons which had to be shoveled into the firebox by a fireman. About every 3 hours, the locomotive would take on water by siphoning from a nearby stream on logging spurs or from a water tank located on the mainline or at the mill. Ole Four Spot carried 2000 gallons of water in her tank. Water from creeks and streams were plentiful and only rarely were additional water tenders added to Montana logging trains. The National Railway Historical Society gave a $5000 Grant for preservation of Shay 1643  The Heritage Museum received a $5000.00 grant from the National Railway Historical Society to begin preservation of the Shay.  The money was used to plan and begin a multi-year project to stabilize, preserve and protect the engine until full restoration could be undertaken. This grant allowed the Heritage Museum to begin efforts to save the remaining native logging engine in Northwest Montana.  

Please help us restore the Shay!

Are you a railroad enthusiast or RR history buff who would like to help our efforts to restore Ole Four Spot?  Our goal is to restore the Shay to full working order and active service as Engine No. 4 on the recently established J. Neils and Heritage Museum Logging Railway. We welcome volunteers and donations of money, experience, materials, advice, and bequests towards returning her to active service at the museum. We are a non-profit, 501 (c) (3) organization. Accordingly, donations are generally tax deductible. Your kind donations will help us to continue to preserve, protect and restore our beloved shay. For more information about volunteering or donating toward restoration of the Shay Locomotive, click here and tell us how you may be able to help.

Related News Media Stories:

Shay locomotive moved to restoration shed  Dec. 27, 2011 (LibbyMT.com) The Heritage Museum's Shay Locomotive  Dec. 6, 2011 (LibbyMT.com) 

Related Links:

ShayLocomotives.com  Geared Steam Locomotive Works  Shay 1643 at The Heritage Museum in Libby (shaylocomotives.com)

Restoring the Shay

Restoration work began in 2011 and is ongoing


1906: Locomotive built in Lima, Ohio 1906-1909: Uncertain, working around Buhl, Minnesota 1909: Purchased by Libby Lumber Company 1909-1924: Logging operations east of Libby 1925-1931: Logging operations north of Libby along river 1931: Hauled logging crews, equipment, switching operations 1936-1944: Mill yard switching 1946: Retired from operations 1963: New owners St. Regis Lumber Co. refurbishes & displays 2013: Acquired by The Heritage Museum Mid 1980s: Cosmetic facelift on Museum grounds 2011-2021: Restoration in progress with goal to bring to active service in the recently established J. Neils and Heritage Museum Logging Railway The Shay #4 Steam Locomotive, fondly known locally as “Ole Four Spot” (serial number 1643) is believed to be the last remaining workable locomotive of its class in Montana.  Built in 1906 by the Lima Locomotive Works of Ohio, the Shay is a powerful standard gauge, class B 37-2 gear-driven locomotive workhorse designed for the Thompson Greer Construction Company in Buhl, Minnesota.  The Shay is commonly referred to as a sidewinder or a stem-winder  because of the arrangement of gears and a drive shaft running the full-length of the right side of the locomotive making each wheel a driver Libby Lumber Company purchased the Shay in 1909 and it hauled logs, supplies, and logging crews for logging operations in and around Libby, Montana, in the early 1900’s.  The Shay operated for about 39 years until it was retired in about 1946. In 2013, the Museum acquired ownership of the Shay for $1. The Shay is now stored in its original “Shay Shed” historical building on the Museum grounds in Libby. In 2016, under the direction of Stathi Pappas of Stockton Locomotive Works of Washington State volunteers began disassembly of the Shay.  Stathi is certified to document, weld, and prove locomotives to federal standards for the Federal Railroad Association.  In 2016, over 100 ultrasonic tests were conducted and recorded on Federal Railroad Association (FRA) Form 4.   Stathi reviewed the test results for the Shay boiler and determined the results to be positive and the opportunities good to restore it to “operating” condition and meet federal boiler safety requirements. In March 2017, a Strategic Plan was written for the Shay #4 “Operating History” Exhibit by the Montana Preservation Alliance.  Stathi Pappas moved his business to the southwest of U.S. and Museum volunteers began working with Luke Johnson of Toutle Valley Locomotive Works of Washington State.  Luke is certified to document, weld, and prove locomotives to Federal standards for the Federal Railroad Association. In late 2018, the Heritage Museum was awarded a $26,704 Tourism Grant, by the State of Montana Department of Commerce, to restore the “firebox” of the locomotive (which sits inside the boiler). The Museum’s locomotive fund contributed $13,353 (much of which came from local donors).  In 2019-20 Museum volunteers helped restore the Shay firebox under the direction of Luke Johnson.
The Heritage Museum is a nonprofit 501(c)3 organization - all donations are tax deductible; 34067 US Hwy 2, Libby, MT 59923, 406-293-7521, Website: Libbyheritagemuseum.org, E-mail: heritagemuseum@frontier.com
THE FUTURE   In 2021, Luke Johnson of Toutle Valley Locomotive Works in Washington State, and the Museum volunteers plan to complete restoration of the boiler (the firebox sits inside the boiler) and the locomotive frame.  The frame restoration will allow for reassembly of the front and rear trucks, including the already lathe-turned wheels and axels.  This work will also allow for placement of the boiler and firebox back onto the front and rear trucks. Watch for updates as the Shay #4 Steam Locomotive is reassembled, inspected, and proved as a centerpiece for an “operating” exhibit at the Heritage Museum in Libby. If you would like to donate to the Shay #4 Restoration Project, please send a check to:  The Heritage Museum, Attn: Shay #4, 34067 US Highway 2, Libby, MT 59923.  We are currently working on a “donation” button on our website that will accept electronic donations.